Flutter插件开发之HmsScanKit实现示例详解

前沿

从事Flutter开发以来,一直都是使用已有的插件,没有自己开发过。最近同事推荐让我使用华为的扫码SDK(hms_scan_kit),正好借此机会来开发一个Flutter的原生插件。算是对最近的插件学习做一个简单的总结。

效果图

我们先看一下实现的扫码效果:点击LoadScanKit按钮调起插件的扫码功能,扫码成功后在界面显示扫码结果。

相关知识点

1. Flutter Packages

通过使用 package(的模式)可以创建易于共享的模块化代码。一个最基本的 package 由以下内容构成:

- pubspec.yaml 文件
用于定义 package 名称、版本号、作者等其他信息的元数据文件。

- lib 目录
包含共享代码的 lib 目录,其中至少包含一个 <package-name>.dart 文件。

2. Package类别

Package包分为二种:

  • 纯Dart库(Dart packages)
  • 只用Dart编写的传统package,比如 path。
  • 原生插件(Plugin packages)
  • 使用Dart编写的,按需使用Java或 Kotlin、Objective-C或Swift 分别在Android或iOS平台实现的package。

3. 原生插件开发步骤

  • 创建package
  • 想要创建原生插件 package,请使用带有 --template=plugin 标志的 flutter create 命令
flutter create --org com.example --template=plugin --platforms=android,ios -a kotlin hello
  • 实现package a. 定义 package API(.dart) b. 添加 Android/iOS 平台代码(.kt/.swift) C. 关联 API 和平台代码

  • 指定插件支持的平台,比如hms_scan插件就如下定义:

name: flutter_hms_scan
description: A new Flutter project.
version: 0.0.1
homepage:
environment:
  sdk: ">=2.15.1 <3.0.0"
  flutter: ">=2.5.0"
flutter:
  plugin:
    platforms:
      android:
        package: com.fitem.flutter_hms_scan
        pluginClass: HmsScanPlugin
      ios:
        pluginClass: HmsScanPlugin

备注:如果使用IDE(比如Android Studio)直接在创建Flutter项目处选择Plugin类型即可,IDE会创建插件模板并实现获取平台系统版本的example,无需上面的步骤

  • Dart对应原生类型:
DartkotlinSwift
nullnullnil
boolBooleanNSNumber(value: Bool)
intIntNSNumber(value: Int32)
intLongNSNumber(value: Int)
doubleDoubleNSNumber(value: Double)
StringStringString
Uint8ListByteArrayFlutterStandardTypedData(bytes: Data)
Int32ListIntArrayFlutterStandardTypedData(int32: Data)
Int64ListLongArrayFlutterStandardTypedData(int64: Data)
Float32ListFloatArrayFlutterStandardTypedData(float32: Data)
Float64ListDoubleArrayFlutterStandardTypedData(float64: Data)
ListListArray
MapHashMapDictionary
  • Flutter的plugin通信流程如下:

HmsScan插件的实现

前面说了这么多,终于进入正题,下面我们开始HmsScan插件的开发吧。

1. 定义 package API:

class FlutterHmsScan {
  // 创建插件
  static const MethodChannel _channel = MethodChannel('hms_scan');
  // 定义调用方法
  static Future<ScanBean> loadScanKit() async {
    return await _channel
        .invokeMethod("loadScanKit")
        .then((value) => scanBeanFromJson(json.encode(value)));
  }
}

2. Android代码实现:

a. 使用IDE打开Android目录,根据官方SDK导入库

// scankitSDK
    implementation 'com.huawei.hms:scanplus:2.4.0.301'
 // 需要在repositories中导入url
   maven {url 'https://developer.huawei.com/repo/'}

b. 继承FlutterPlugin类,接入Flutter管道。由于sdk用到权限请求和onActivityResult的回调,因此我们需要继承ActivityAware对Activity添加监听。其中registerWith()方法是为了适配老版本Flutter的兼容。

class HmsScanPlugin : FlutterPlugin, ActivityAware {
    /// The MethodChannel that will the communication between Flutter and native Android
    ///
    /// This local reference serves to register the plugin with the Flutter Engine and unregister it
    /// when the Flutter Engine is detached from the Activity
    private lateinit var mScanLauncher: ScanLauncher
    private lateinit var mHandler: MethodCallHandlerImpl
    /**
     * 老版本Flutter兼容
     */
    fun registerWith(registrar: Registrar) {
        mScanLauncher = ScanLauncher(registrar.context(), registrar.activity())
        mHandler = MethodCallHandlerImpl(mScanLauncher)
        mHandler.startService(registrar.messenger())
        registrar.addActivityResultListener(mHandler)
        registrar.addRequestPermissionsResultListener(mHandler)
    }
    override fun onAttachedToEngine(@NonNull flutterPluginBinding: FlutterPlugin.FlutterPluginBinding) {
        mScanLauncher = ScanLauncher(flutterPluginBinding.applicationContext, null)
        mHandler = MethodCallHandlerImpl(mScanLauncher)
        mHandler.startService(flutterPluginBinding.binaryMessenger)
    }
    override fun onDetachedFromEngine(@NonNull binding: FlutterPlugin.FlutterPluginBinding) {
        mHandler.stopService()
    }
    override fun onAttachedToActivity(binding: ActivityPluginBinding) {
        mScanLauncher.activity = binding.activity
        binding.addActivityResultListener(mHandler)
        binding.addRequestPermissionsResultListener(mHandler)
    }
    override fun onDetachedFromActivity() {
        mScanLauncher.activity = null
    }
    override fun onDetachedFromActivityForConfigChanges() {
        onDetachedFromActivity()
    }
    override fun onReattachedToActivityForConfigChanges(binding: ActivityPluginBinding) {
        onAttachedToActivity(binding)
    }
}

c. 考虑到HmsScanPlugin职责过多,这里使用MethodCallHandlerImpl进行分离解耦,专门处理Flutter管道的通信。

/**
 * 插件方法监听
 * Created by Fitem on 2022/3/2.
 */
class MethodCallHandlerImpl(var scanLauncher: ScanLauncher) : MethodChannel.MethodCallHandler,
    MethodCallHandlerListener, PluginRegistry.ActivityResultListener,
    PluginRegistry.RequestPermissionsResultListener {
    private lateinit var channel: MethodChannel
    override fun onMethodCall(call: MethodCall, result: MethodChannel.Result) {
        when (call.method) {
            "getPlatformVersion" -> {
                result.success("Android ${android.os.Build.VERSION.RELEASE}")
            }
            "loadScanKit" -> {
                scanLauncher.loadScanKit(call, result)
            }
            else -> {
                result.notImplemented()
            }
        }
    }
    override fun startService(binaryMessenger: BinaryMessenger) {
        channel = MethodChannel(binaryMessenger, "hms_scan")
        channel.setMethodCallHandler(this)
    }
    override fun stopService() {
        channel.setMethodCallHandler(null)
    }
    override fun onActivityResult(requestCode: Int, resultCode: Int, data: Intent?): Boolean {
        if (resultCode != Activity.RESULT_OK || data == null) {
            return false
        }
        return scanLauncher.onActivityResult(requestCode, resultCode, data)
    }
    override fun onRequestPermissionsResult(
        requestCode: Int,
        permissions: Array<out String>?,
        grantResults: IntArray?
    ): Boolean {
        if (permissions == null || grantResults == null) {
            return false
        }
        return  scanLauncher.onRequestPermissionResult(requestCode, permissions, grantResults)
    }
}
// 管道通信生命周期的绑定
interface MethodCallHandlerListener {
    fun startService(binaryMessenger: BinaryMessenger)
    fun stopService()
}

d. 最后通过ScanLauncher来专门处理扫码功能的相关实现

class ScanLauncher(var applicationContext: Context, var activity: Activity?) {
    companion object {
        const val CAMERA_REQ_CODE = 111
        const val DEFINED_CODE = 222
        const val BITMAP_CODE = 333
        const val MULTIPROCESSOR_SYN_CODE = 444
        const val MULTIPROCESSOR_ASYN_CODE = 555
        const val GENERATE_CODE = 666
        const val DECODE = 1
        const val GENERATE = 2
        const val REQUEST_CODE_SCAN_ONE = 0X01
        const val REQUEST_CODE_DEFINE = 0X0111
        const val REQUEST_CODE_SCAN_MULTI = 0X011
        const val DECODE_MODE = "decode_mode"
        const val RESULT = "SCAN_RESULT"
        const val SCAN_STATUS = "scanStatus"
        const val CODE_FORMAT = "codeFormat"
        const val RESULT_TYPE = "resultType"
        const val CODE_RESULT = "codeResult"
    }
    private var result: MethodChannel.Result? = null
    /**
     * 扫码
     */
    fun loadScanKit(call: MethodCall, result: MethodChannel.Result) {
        this.result = result
        requestPermission(CAMERA_REQ_CODE, DECODE)
    }
    /**
     * Apply for permissions.
     */
    private fun requestPermission(requestCode: Int, mode: Int) {
        if (activity == null) {
            result?.success(mapOf(SCAN_STATUS to false))
            return
        }
        if (mode == DECODE) {
            decodePermission(requestCode)
        } else if (mode == GENERATE) {
            generatePermission(requestCode)
        }
    }
    /**
     * Apply for permissions.
     */
    private fun decodePermission(requestCode: Int) {
        ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(
            activity!!,
            arrayOf(Manifest.permission.CAMERA, Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE),
            requestCode
        )
    }
    /**
     * Apply for permissions.
     */
    private fun generatePermission(requestCode: Int) {
        ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(
            activity!!, arrayOf(Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE),
            requestCode
        )
    }
    fun onActivityResult(requestCode: Int, resultCode: Int, data: Intent): Boolean {
        //Default View
        if (requestCode == REQUEST_CODE_SCAN_ONE) {
            val obj: HmsScan? = data.getParcelableExtra(ScanUtil.RESULT)
            if (obj != null) {
                result?.success(
                    mapOf(
                        SCAN_STATUS to true,
                        CODE_FORMAT to getCodeFormat(obj.scanType),
                        RESULT_TYPE to getResultType(obj),
                        CODE_RESULT to obj.originalValue
                    )
                )
                return true
            }
            //MultiProcessor & Bitmap
        }
        return false
    }
    fun onRequestPermissionResult(
        requestCode: Int,
        permissions: Array<out String>,
        grantResults: IntArray
    ): Boolean {
        if (grantResults.size < 2 || grantResults[0] != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED || grantResults[1] != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
            return false
        }
        //Default View Mode
        if (requestCode == CAMERA_REQ_CODE) {
            ScanUtil.startScan(
                activity,
                REQUEST_CODE_SCAN_ONE,
                HmsScanAnalyzerOptions.Creator().create()
            )
            return true
        }
        return false
    }
    /**
     * 获取CodeFormat
     */
    private fun getCodeFormat(codeFormat: Int): String {
        return when (codeFormat) {
            HmsScan.QRCODE_SCAN_TYPE -> "QR code"
            HmsScan.AZTEC_SCAN_TYPE -> "AZTEC code"
            HmsScan.DATAMATRIX_SCAN_TYPE -> "DATAMATRIX code"
            HmsScan.PDF417_SCAN_TYPE -> "PDF417 code"
            HmsScan.CODE93_SCAN_TYPE -> "CODE93"
            HmsScan.CODE39_SCAN_TYPE -> "CODE39"
            HmsScan.CODE128_SCAN_TYPE -> "CODE128"
            HmsScan.EAN13_SCAN_TYPE -> "EAN13 code"
            HmsScan.EAN8_SCAN_TYPE -> "EAN8 code"
            HmsScan.ITF14_SCAN_TYPE -> "ITF14 code"
            HmsScan.UPCCODE_A_SCAN_TYPE -> "UPCCODE_A"
            HmsScan.UPCCODE_E_SCAN_TYPE -> "UPCCODE_E"
            HmsScan.CODABAR_SCAN_TYPE -> "CODABAR"
            else -> "OTHER"
        }
    }
    /**
     * 获取ResultType
     */
    private fun getResultType(hmsScan: HmsScan): String {
        return when (hmsScan.scanType) {
            HmsScan.QRCODE_SCAN_TYPE -> when (hmsScan.scanTypeForm) {
                HmsScan.QRCODE_SCAN_TYPE -> "Text"
                HmsScan.EVENT_INFO_FORM -> "Event"
                HmsScan.CONTACT_DETAIL_FORM -> "Contact"
                HmsScan.DRIVER_INFO_FORM -> "License"
                HmsScan.EMAIL_CONTENT_FORM -> "Email"
                HmsScan.LOCATION_COORDINATE_FORM -> "Location"
                HmsScan.TEL_PHONE_NUMBER_FORM -> "Tel"
                HmsScan.SMS_FORM -> "SMS"
                HmsScan.WIFI_CONNECT_INFO_FORM -> "Wi-Fi"
                HmsScan.URL_FORM -> "WebSite"
                HmsScan.URL_FORM -> "WebSite"
                else -> "Text"
            }
            HmsScan.EAN13_SCAN_TYPE -> when (hmsScan.scanTypeForm) {
                HmsScan.ISBN_NUMBER_FORM -> "ISBN"
                HmsScan.ARTICLE_NUMBER_FORM -> "Product"
                else -> "Text"
            }
            HmsScan.EAN8_SCAN_TYPE,
            HmsScan.UPCCODE_A_SCAN_TYPE,
            HmsScan.UPCCODE_E_SCAN_TYPE -> when (hmsScan.scanTypeForm) {
                HmsScan.ARTICLE_NUMBER_FORM -> "Product"
                else -> "Text"
            }
            else -> "Text"
        }
    }
}

最后在AndroidManifest.xml中添加需要的权限:

<!--相机权限-->
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.CAMERA" />
    <!--文件读取权限-->
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />

3. ios部分的实现

ios原本也是打算使用hms的,但是官方居然2年没有更新了,并且不支持bitcode版本、不支持cocopod,demo也无法正常运行。经过一番尝试后,决定放弃使用该库,换成了MTBBarcodeScanner库。(ios新人一个,如果有精通IOS的同学们欢迎指教!)

a. 通过SwiftHmsScanPlugin创建Flutter管道

public class SwiftHmsScanPlugin: NSObject, FlutterPlugin, BarcodeScannerViewControllerDelegate {
    private var result: FlutterResult?
    private var hostViewController: UIViewController?
    public static func register(with registrar: FlutterPluginRegistrar) {
    let channel = FlutterMethodChannel(name: "hms_scan", binaryMessenger: registrar.messenger())
    let instance = SwiftHmsScanPlugin()
    registrar.addMethodCallDelegate(instance, channel: channel)
  }
  public func handle(_ call: FlutterMethodCall, result: @escaping FlutterResult) {
      self.result = result
      if ("loadScanKit" == call.method) {
          loadScanKit()
      } else {
          result("iOS " + UIDevice.current.systemVersion)
      }
  }
    public func loadScanKit() {
        if let rootVC = UIApplication.shared.keyWindow?.rootViewController {
                    hostViewController = topViewController(base:rootVC)
                } else if let window = UIApplication.shared.delegate?.window,let rootVC = window?.rootViewController {
                    hostViewController = topViewController(base:rootVC)
                }
        let scannerViewController = BarcodeScannerViewController()
        let navigationController = UINavigationController(rootViewController: scannerViewController)
        if #available(iOS 13.0, *) {
              navigationController.modalPresentationStyle = .fullScreen
          }
        scannerViewController.delegate = self
        hostViewController?.present(navigationController, animated: false)
    }
    private func topViewController(base: UIViewController?) -> UIViewController? {
        if let nav = base as? UINavigationController {
            return topViewController(base: nav.visibleViewController)
        } else if let tab = base as? UITabBarController, let selected = tab.selectedViewController {
            return topViewController(base: selected)
        } else if let presented = base?.presentedViewController {
            return topViewController(base: presented)
        }
        return base
    }
    func didScanBarcodeWithResult(_ controller: BarcodeScannerViewController?, scanResult: ScanResult) {
        result?(["codeResult":scanResult.rawContent, "scanStatus" : String(true), "resultType": String(scanResult.format.rawValue)])
    }
    func didFailWithErrorCode(_ controller: BarcodeScannerViewController?, errorCode: String) {
        result?(["scanStatus" : String(false)])
    }
}

b. BarcodeScannerViewController实现扫码功能

class BarcodeScannerViewController: UIViewController {
  private var previewView: UIView?
  private var scanRect: ScannerOverlay?
  private var scanner: MTBBarcodeScanner?
  private let formatMap = [
    BarcodeFormat.aztec : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.aztec,
    BarcodeFormat.code39 : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.code39,
    BarcodeFormat.code93 : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.code93,
    BarcodeFormat.code128 : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.code128,
    BarcodeFormat.dataMatrix : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.dataMatrix,
    BarcodeFormat.ean8 : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.ean8,
    BarcodeFormat.ean13 : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.ean13,
    BarcodeFormat.interleaved2Of5 : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.interleaved2of5,
    BarcodeFormat.pdf417 : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.pdf417,
    BarcodeFormat.qr : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.qr,
    BarcodeFormat.upce : AVMetadataObject.ObjectType.upce,
  ]
  var delegate: BarcodeScannerViewControllerDelegate?
  private var device: AVCaptureDevice? {
    return AVCaptureDevice.default(for: .video)
  }
  private var isFlashOn: Bool {
    return device != nil && (device?.flashMode == AVCaptureDevice.FlashMode.on || device?.torchMode == .on)
  }
  private var hasTorch: Bool {
    return device?.hasTorch ?? false
  }
  override func viewDidLoad() {
    super.viewDidLoad()
    UIDevice.current.endGeneratingDeviceOrientationNotifications()
    #if targetEnvironment(simulator)
    view.backgroundColor = .lightGray
    #endif
    previewView = UIView(frame: view.bounds)
    if let previewView = previewView {
      previewView.autoresizingMask = [.flexibleWidth, .flexibleHeight]
      view.addSubview(previewView)
    }
    setupScanRect(view.bounds)
    scanner = MTBBarcodeScanner(previewView: previewView)
    navigationItem.leftBarButtonItem = UIBarButtonItem(title: "cancel",
                                                        style: .plain,
                                                        target: self,
                                                        action: #selector(cancel)
    )
    updateToggleFlashButton()
  }
  override func viewDidAppear(_ animated: Bool) {
    super.viewDidAppear(animated)
    if scanner!.isScanning() {
      scanner!.stopScanning()
    }
    UIDevice.current.endGeneratingDeviceOrientationNotifications()
    scanRect?.startAnimating()
    MTBBarcodeScanner.requestCameraPermission(success: { success in
      if success {
        self.startScan()
      } else {
        #if !targetEnvironment(simulator)
        self.errorResult(errorCode: "PERMISSION_NOT_GRANTED")
        #endif
      }
    })
  }
  override func viewWillDisappear(_ animated: Bool) {
    scanner?.stopScanning()
    scanRect?.stopAnimating()
    UIDevice.current.beginGeneratingDeviceOrientationNotifications()
    if isFlashOn {
      setFlashState(false)
    }
    super.viewWillDisappear(animated)
  }
  override func viewWillTransition(to size: CGSize, with coordinator: UIViewControllerTransitionCoordinator) {
    super.viewWillTransition(to: size, with: coordinator)
    setupScanRect(CGRect(origin: CGPoint(x: 0, y:0),
                         size: size
    ))
  }
  private func setupScanRect(_ bounds: CGRect) {
    if scanRect != nil {
      scanRect?.stopAnimating()
      scanRect?.removeFromSuperview()
    }
    scanRect = ScannerOverlay(frame: bounds)
    if let scanRect = scanRect {
      scanRect.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
      scanRect.backgroundColor = UIColor.clear
      view.addSubview(scanRect)
      scanRect.startAnimating()
    }
  }
  private func startScan() {
    do {
      try scanner!.startScanning(with: cameraFromConfig, resultBlock: { codes in
        if let code = codes?.first {
          let codeType = self.formatMap.first(where: { $0.value == code.type });
          let scanResult = ScanResult.with {
            $0.type = .barcode
            $0.rawContent = code.stringValue ?? ""
            $0.format = codeType?.key ?? .unknown
            $0.formatNote = codeType == nil ? code.type.rawValue : ""
          }
          self.scanner!.stopScanning()
          self.scanResult(scanResult)
        }
      })
    } catch {
      self.scanResult(ScanResult.with {
        $0.type = .error
        $0.rawContent = "\(error)"
        $0.format = .unknown
      })
    }
  }
  @objc private func cancel() {
    scanResult( ScanResult.with {
      $0.type = .cancelled
      $0.format = .unknown
    });
  }
  @objc private func onToggleFlash() {
    setFlashState(!isFlashOn)
  }
  private func updateToggleFlashButton() {
    if !hasTorch {
      return
    }
    let buttonText = isFlashOn ? "flash_off" : "flash_on"
    navigationItem.rightBarButtonItem = UIBarButtonItem(title: buttonText,
                                                        style: .plain,
                                                        target: self,
                                                        action: #selector(onToggleFlash)
    )
  }
  private func setFlashState(_ on: Bool) {
    if let device = device {
      guard device.hasFlash && device.hasTorch else {
        return
      }
      do {
        try device.lockForConfiguration()
      } catch {
        return
      }
      device.flashMode = on ? .on : .off
      device.torchMode = on ? .on : .off
      device.unlockForConfiguration()
      updateToggleFlashButton()
    }
  }
  private func errorResult(errorCode: String){
    delegate?.didFailWithErrorCode(self, errorCode: errorCode)
    dismiss(animated: false)
  }
  private func scanResult(_ scanResult: ScanResult){
    self.delegate?.didScanBarcodeWithResult(self, scanResult: scanResult)
    dismiss(animated: false)
  }
  private var cameraFromConfig: MTBCamera {
    return .back
  }
}

c. 最后需要在example的ios目录Info.plist文件中添加相机权限:

// example/ios/Runner/Info.plist
<key>NSCameraUsageDescription</key>
<string>Camera permission is required for barcode scanning.</string>

至此,一个简单的应用于Android、iOS的plugin插件已完成。

4. 需要注意的点

  • 使用Android Studio右键选择Flutter即可通过Android Studio和Xcode打开项目,如图:

  • Android目录打开后,若看不到插件module,可以选择Project Files模式下查看,如图:

  • ios目录打开前,需要进入example目录输入命令 flutter build ios,待编译完成后再通过Xcode打开。

总结

Plugin原生插件其实就是基于Flutter提供的管道进行通信,和原生开发的使用并无太大区别。但需要我们对原生代码的调用有一个基本的了解,然后引入其他原生开发库进行调用。最后附上项目地址:flutter_hms_scan

作者:Fitem

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